Validating of statements and facts
Several organizations are devoted to post hoc fact-checking, such as Fact and Politi Fact. Barker and Todd Bowser found "substantial differences in the questions asked and the answers offered." They concluded that this limited the "usefulness of fact-checking for citizens trying to decide which version of disputed realities to believe." A paper by Chloe Lim, Ph. Student at Stanford University, finds little overlap in the statements that fact-checkers check.Out of 1065 fact-checks by Politi Fact and 240 fact-checks by the Washington Post's Fact-Checker, there were only 70 statements that both fact-checkers checked.
After Immanuel Kant, in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained a posteriori knowledge (in contrast to a priori knowledge).The validation process involves reviewing a statistically valid sample of the assessments and making recommendations for future improvements to the assessment tool, process and/or outcomes if applicable.The validation process also includes acting upon any recommendations for future improvement.Validation activities are generally conducted after assessment is complete—so that an RTO can consider the validity of both assessment practices and judgements.Validation involves checking that your assessment tools have produced valid, reliable, sufficient, current and authentic evidence—evidence that allows your RTO to make reasonable judgements about whether training product requirements have been met.The evidence consists of a set of webpages, textual excerpts from those pages and meta-information on the pages.
The text excerpts and the associated meta information allow the user to quickly get an overview over possible credible sources for the input statement: Instead of having to use search engines, browsing several webpages and looking for relevant pieces of information, the user can more efficiently review the presented information.
The requirement in the Standards to undertake validation of assessment judgements does not affect your RTO’s ability to undertake moderation activities, or any other process aimed at increasing the quality of assessment.
You could also work with other RTOs—from the same or different industry areas—and collaboratively validate each other’s assessment practices and judgements.
This stands in contrast to the rationalist view under which reason or reflection alone is considered evidence for the truth or falsity of some propositions. Secondary sources describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources.
Empirical evidence is information acquired by observation or experimentation. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or popular magazines, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research.
In contrast to typical search engines, it does not just search for textual occurences of parts of the statement, but tries to find web pages, which contain the statement phrased in natural language.